Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are fatty acids with fewer than six carbon atoms. SCFAs are produced when dietary fiber is fermented in the colon. Macronutrient composition (carbohydrate, protein, or fat) of diets affects circulating SCFAs. They are the main energy source of cells in the colon, making them crucial to gastrointestinal health. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the three most common SCFAs. Propionate is mainly involved in producing glucose in the liver, while acetate and butyrate are incorporated into other fatty acids and cholesterol.
Short-chain fatty acids have diverse physiological roles in body functions. They can affect the production of lipids, energy and vitamins, and can also affect appetite and cardiometabolic health. Butyrate is particularly important for colon health because it is the primary energy source for colonocytes (epithelial cells of the colon). Eating a lot of fiber-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables and legumes, is linked to an increase in short-chain fatty acids. When absorbed, SCFAs account for about 10% of daily calorie requirements.
SCFAs have been shown to increase enzyme activity in the liver and muscle tissue, resulting in better blood sugar control (potentially useful for diabetics). Butyrate is believed to work with key genes that produce cholesterol, possibly reducing cholesterol production and decreasing risk of heart disease. High-fiber foods have been linked to reduced inflammation, which may be driven by the production of SCFAs in the colon.
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